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The idea behind a pencil-beam survey is different. Instead of a wide-angle sampling of galaxies, it takes a lot of narrow-beamed samples of galaxies. The main takeaway here is that no matter what direction the beam survey is pointed, it sees roughly the same distribution of galaxies over space. It is tool which shows us that on cosmological scales, the universe is the same in every direction.
Birth of the universe
When was the universe born?
Where was the universe born?
More distant galaxies appear to move faster